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Decontamination : The removal of toxic or other harmful substances from an environment.

Introduction to Society

The substance may be harmful to wildlife, people, biodiversity or the overall ecology. Drainage : The process of removing excess moisture from land - typically wetlands or saturated agricultural land. Dredging : The removal of silt, mud, or other sold material from the bed of a body of water. Too much of this material can cause flooding.

Environmental Law: Government and Public Policy Towards the Environment | constranitplan.tk

Emission : Any pollutant discharged into the atmosphere that will contribute to overall chemical change as it will not be broken down or otherwise removed. Endangered species : Any species whose numbers and diversity is so low that they are at danger of becoming extinct. Energy Efficiency : The amount of energy harnessed from the combustion process burning fuel. Machinery, motor vehicles, and our homes are said to be energy efficient the more energy that is extracted from lower or smaller volumes of the source.

Filtration : Removing solid waste and material from water in the process of wastewater treatment. Fossil fuel : Any mineralized formerly organic material extracted from the ground and used in energy production: coal, natural gas, oil. Greenfields site : The opposite of brownfield sites, it is typically land that has been used only for agricultural use, or forested area, that has never been developed for residential, commercial or industrial use 4.

They are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, CFCs, and hydrofluorocarbons. Half-life : the time it takes for any pollutant usually refers to radioactive material but also includes other toxic material to halve its effect on the environment. This can include corrosive, toxic, explosive, flammable, or chemical reactants. Hazardous Waste : Similar to above, but waste material produced as a byproduct of any commercial or industrial activity that has the same dangerous attributes.

As it is a waste, it serves no purpose on its own. Indigenous species : A species of flora or fauna recognized as being native to a certain area. Indoor air pollution : coming under OSHA rather than EPA, there are laws in place to ensure that employees work in a clean and safe environment with good ventilation. Indoor air is anything contained with a building. Indoor air pollution is any chemical or other substances contributing to an imbalance that could affect the health of the building's inhabitants. Invasive species : A species of flora or fauna not native to a certain area, but one that has colonized it - usually presenting problems for native wildlife.

Invasive species are sometimes subject to active control and deliberate removal.

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Landfill : An area of land set aside for the disposal of waste - usually commercial or residential of non-toxic waste although in the case of where they might contain such, treatment may be required to prevent pollution. Margin of Safety : The designated upper limit of exposure to a potentially harmful substance before it becomes harmful.

This can apply to human health and to environmental exposure. Material Safety Data Sheet : An international standard form containing information relevant to a substance's toxicity, hazardousness, and potential environmental damage. It also explains proper protection equipment and what to do in the result of exposure First Aid. It prohibits the discharge of polluting chemicals into US waters unless a special permit is granted. They use a hazard ranking system and a fund is made available for remediation. National Response Team NRT : This is a team from 13 different Federal agencies that come together to coordinate federal responses to incidents such as natural disasters, oil spills, significant pollution emission, chemical releases and so on.

Ozone layer : A protective layer of gas in the upper atmosphere that absorbs the sun's must harmful radiation. Its depletion was one of the major problems of the s. Pollutant : A substance or material introduced into an environment that has negative or harmful effects to the ecology or specific biological species, or one that reduces the efficiency or safety of a resource. Radiation : The transmission of energy through space.

Steve Cropper, Mark Ebers, Chris Huxham, and Peter Smith Ring

It can be ionizing or non-ionizing. The former is powerful enough to break bonds x-rays the latter is not radio frequency. Remediation : The process of removing toxic materials from an environment and the attempt to restore it to a previous state. This can be anything from asbestos , lead and other heavy metals, and radioactive isotopes. Risk Assessment : An official investigation, usually required legally, to examine risk exposure and potential consequences under any scenario.

DEPENDENCY, CODEPENDENCY, INTERDEPENDENCY: HOW TO DISTINGUISH THEM

Sanctions : This legal term also exists outside of environmental law and it means the same thing. It's the application of measures against a polluter or other entity or person who breaks environmental law. Often, measures will include a ban on government contracts. Sewage : Solid and liquid waste removed from residential properties, typically human waste but also includes anything that uses water to take it away.

Smog is not natural, It is the direct result of emissions from industrial processes.


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Vulnerable Zone : During a chemical leak, it will be necessary to track its most likely path based on meteorological data. The vulnerable zone is the area where the airborne pollutant or chemical might because problematic. Water budget : What is the difference between the water stock and the water used? Increasingly important in drought-hit areas, it's important to monitor and manage water supplies to ensure we don't use more than is available.

It's higher during wet periods and lower during drier spells. Wetlands : A wetland is an area of land that has a high water table or one that is typically flooded for most of the time. It can be tidal or non-tidal and includes marshes and floodplains. The Everglades National Park is one such example.


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They are often a haven for wildlife and subject to protections to preserve their unique profile. There are many areas under the umbrella of environmental law. All have one thing in common - the protection of ecology and the health of the environment. The first and most visible way in which the public is aware of and engaged with environmental law is pollution. Some of the world's earliest environmental laws concern the protection of our environment from polluting materials and, by extension, aim to improve public health.

Air Pollution and Quality : This is the enforcement of air standards through monitoring that determines what constitutes safe levels of certain substances emitted by industrial processes, motor vehicles, and part of our everyday lives. There are laws for the outside and indoor environments to ensure safe working levels. They are designed to protect human and ecological health.

Some are concerned with placing limitations on emissions as some countries now include emissions tests for annual vehicle safety checks while others are enacted to eliminate it altogether. One of the best examples of control or elimination is the global legislation in the s to limit CFC emissions that were damaging the ozone layer 5.

There may also be requirements on what technologies must be used for mitigation such as the use of catalytic converters in cars that used older lead fuel 6. Contaminant Cleanup, Prevention and Mitigation : Toxic spills and leaks happen even with all the best intentions in the world. While some are the result of negligence, some are unavoidable. Regardless of whether such a pollutant leak is avoidable or unavoidable, there are necessary laws determining what is required of the responsible party and the team responsible for the cleanup should do to ensure that contamination is first limited and controlled, and then removed from an environment to avoid longer-term or large-scale damage.

Regulations can also include liability, response, determine the process of investigation, monitoring before, during and after cleanup, and the risk assessment of long-term effects. Safe Use of Chemicals : The safe use of chemicals is required in any workplace where they are used: from industrial manufacturing to agriculture, testing laboratories , professional cleaning, repair garages, such chemical safety laws seek to govern how we use them. This means the corrects storage of chemicals, their use, safety equipment in their application, the types of storage containers and even how and who they are bought and sold such as licenses, to registered businesses and so on.

This seeks to manage and control by limiting risk and ensuring safety, the actual chemicals and substances where they are necessary. Environmental law has also banned some chemicals where their risks outweigh the benefits. A good example of this is the removal of Bisphenol A from plastic bottles in some states 7. Waste Management : Waste is a fact of life. Our homes, industry, and commerce all produce waste; it cannot be avoided.

Waste management concerns the governance of many aspects of waste from their transport and storage, proper procedure on disposal and treatment where necessary, everything from the recyclable packaging of our household waste right up to nuclear waste as a byproduct of energy production. Some of these are damaging to the environment or human health - or both - while some are not harmful but take too long so long to break down that they go into a landfill. Waste management is as much about reducing the amount of raw material in a landfill as it is about protecting health.

There are necessary laws state, Federal, and international that govern what we may and may not do to and with sources of water. Pollutants don't just harm drinking water or localized areas but can make their way into the water system and into the oceans - causing wide-scale damage, potentially. Water quality laws concern the release of pollutants into any water body be it surface water, drinking water supply, and the water table, rivers, seasons, and oceans.

Environmental Law: Government and Public Policy Towards the Environment

Some concern human health only while others look at wider-scale ecological issues, depending on the law. Some list pollutants that may not be flushed into a water system while others determine that substances must be chemically altered and rendered inert before disposal.

Examples include raw sewage, agricultural waste, and the procedure for water run-off from industrial or construction sites. As well as prevention, treatment and mitigation of the above resources, there is increasingly a need for laws concerning sustainability. This is defined as the ability or desire to sustain a resource at a certain level and based on three scientific principles: increased dependence on renewable energy, biodiversity, and chemical cycling.

Typically, it involved interventions to place limits on use or to enforce standards of replacement. It covers the following areas.